This helps improve the texture of the soil as well as encourage beneficial microorganisms. The fungus will show up as light-green, yellowish or reddish-brown, almost scorched-looking spots on the tops of the leaves. Control Phyllosticta leaf spot disease by raking up all fallen leaves and avoiding the use of overhead watering to prevent wetting of the leaves. New leaves may even emerge completely yellow. Winged pests can also create issues that often appear in spring and summer as they migrate from garden to garden. Preventing disease from the start is much easier than getting rid of it or controlling it from spreading to healthy plants. Think about thinning the shade or â¦ Rhododendrons are named from the Greek words "rodon" and "dendron." Get in close and investigate the plant. Azaleas and rhododendrons like to have a layer of mulch to protect the shallow roots of the plants. You'll find useful information here whether you're growing vegetables in an apartment, patio, or a raised bed. Eventually, the leaf turns brown and will fall off. If the roots are planted too deep, they don’t get the required aeration. The symptoms of azalea leaf gall are varying sizes of sores on the leaves. The rhododendron plant likes to grow in a loamy soil. Her full bio and clips can be viewed at www.vegaswriter.com. Otherwise, you need to water the soil. As the disease progresses, the spots become white with a sort of floury bloom. I don’t recommend using chemicals in your garden but there might be some instances where you need to use them. You can place a sunblock that will provide some shade to the plant. Your rhododendron leaves are turning brown because they may be suffering from scorched leaves. The former is a naturally occurring phenomenon that takes place as the result of changing weather patterns and doesn't necessarily indicate a dead plant. When brown leaves show up in a rhododendron, it's usually at winter's end -- right before flowering time. Feed and water the plant and it will probably pick up. Highly susceptible cultivars can die within two weeks, whereas more resistant plants may not die until many weeks â¦ Rhododendrons should be watered regularly and thoroughly so that each plant's entire root zone is moistened. You don’t need to worry about this if it’s just a problem for a few hours as the leaves will bounce back and become healthy again. If the soil is too acidic or alkaline, the plant cannot circulate nutrients well and causes leave to brown. It will spread under the leaves unnoticed before typically appearing as unattractive spots on the top of the leaves. The leaves could also turn brown because of a lack of water. If the soil is too acidic, you can increase the pH by using limestone. But if the issue is minor, you can get rid of the excess chemicals by flushing the soil several times with clean water. But I started seeing browning of some of the leaves. Prolonged saturation leads to diseases that kill an entire plant, not just its leaves. Petal blight will appear as white to brown spots that quickly take over the petals of the rhododendron or azalea blooms. Analyze summer watering systems to â¦ Bud blast spoils developing flower buds, it is a fungal infection thought to be associated with the activities of the leafhopper. If the infection is too severe, you may not be able to save your plant. The stress from such a rise and drop in the temperatures will cause the leaves to curl up and turn brown. Branches Wilted; Holes In Stems Are Caused by Borers. The rhododendron plant prefers slightly acidic soil with a pH of 6-6.5. Check the underside of the plant’s leaves on a regular basis. -continued-E-2-14 1/03 Diagnosing Rhododendron Problems Yellow Leaves Chlorotic (pale) leaves are a sign of low fertility for all types of plants, not just rhododendrons. Phyllosticta leaf blotch is caused by several Phyllosticta species. And this will start turning the leaves brown. You might not be able to save your plant if the poisoning is too much. Starting A Garden Free Plants Rhododendron Care Rhododendron Problems All About Plants Shade Plants Tree Care Plants Shade Loving Shrubs This disease can also cause the buds to rot; the leavâ¦ The rhododendron plant has shallow roots and you need to keep a portion of them above the ground. The leaves could also turn brown because of a lack of water. The mulch helps keep the soil moist longer and prevents the soil from splashing on the leaves. Rhododendrons grow best in soil that is consistently moist but never soggy. Chlorosis becomes a problem when the soil pH is 7.0 or higher. The rose tree grows well in temperate regions of Asia, Europe and North America. Leaves turn brown to black and fall in 3 to 4 days. The peak season for rhododendrons is early spring and late May. W... All necessary for Pest Control https://amzn.to/2rLU5CG ----- Brown Spots on Azalea Leaves. The most common problem you may face is root and crown rot. I recommend adding mulch near the base of your rhododendron plant. Check soil with â¦ This springâs bloom was the best in a long time. Some other pests like vine weevil will eat away at the stems causing a lack of nutrients in the leaves and turning them brown. The common pests that attack the rhododendron plant include mites, Gall Midge fly, vine weevil, aphids, and lace bugs. In moist, humid climates, azalea shrubs fill the yard with blossoms from spring to autumn. This could happen due to the hot sun or cold winter winds. To control the damage that can be done to rhododendron leaves by the insects that immigrate to your garden, you need to control the population of these pesky invaders. So, before you prune or hack your rhodies to the ground, try to assess the problem. You can also use products that contain imidacloprid or dinotefuran to spread around the soil to keep creepy crawlers from making purchase in the soil or climbing up the lower branches of the hardy rhododendron or azalea. This kind of damage is most likely due to unfavorable environmental and weather conditions. In many cases, the plants can be saved, though they may be set back some. "Rodon" means "rose," and "dendron" means "tree." Rhododendrons include over 800 species of plants in the Ericaceae family. Look for yellow leaves, scorched brown spots, powder or discoloration. The excess water drowns the shallow roots and crown of the plant causing them to rot. Plants die rapidly. Stick your finger 1-2 inches in the soil and check if the tip of your finger feels moist. Welcome to my website where I write about growing your own organic food in a limited space. Borers are wormlike, 1/2-inch long yellowish-white larvae of moths. I suppose the oddest thing is that the rhododendron next to it is doing fine, albeit it's not the same variety. If the rhododendron plant is getting too much heat in summer, the leaves will get scorch burn and start turning brown. But when your garden has an infestation, your plants will suffer. As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases. I suggest hardening the plant before you transplant it outdoors in the garden. When the infestation is severe, it can cause the petal-shaped leaves to drop from the plant. This pesky insect lays its eggs on the developing flower buds and moves on to surrounding plants. The fungus Exobasidium japonicum will cause unsightly disfiguration of the plant’s leaves, but it often won’t kill the plant entirely. Physiological leaf spot. This could happen due to the hot sun or cold winter winds. Both prefer an acidic soil that is well drained, and a specialized fertilizer should be applied per care instructions after the plant’s blooms have finished. However, there are many different types of rhododendron. Many diseases and other problems can be prevented by following the recommended cultural practices for proper planting and care. The stressed roots won’t be able to provide nutrients and moisture to the plant including the leaves causing them to turn brown. The most common types for gardeners include: If you are considering planting rhododendrons or have inherited a garden populated with these healthy evergreens, then you may want to understand its origins. rhododendron typical of climbing cutworms. Chlorosis â Chlorosis, an iron deficiency, is common in rhododendrons and causes leaves to turn from a rich dark green to a light green or even yellow. I’ve written a lot more details below that will help you narrow down the problem if you are seeing your rhododendron leaves turning brown as well. Poor drainage and overwatering are common causes of browning leaves and stems. Unfortunately, there isn’t a specific time period, as fungi will attack at any time of the year. These attack the pests and get rid of them. Common problems of rhododendron bushes can be avoided by providing the best growing environment possible and maintaining a consistent pruning, mulching and fertilizing program. This can cause the spores to spread or can push pests down into the soil only to return. Burnt rhododendron leaves (leaves that appear burned, scorched, or browned and crisp) are not necessarily diseased. This is an easy issue to fix as you can protect the plant from the sunlight. Once a section becomes afflicted the progress of the affliction spreads rapidly. Hosts The most common hosts of Phyllosticta leaf blotch include witchhazel (Hamamaelis), hydrangea (Hydrangea), rhododendron/azalea (Rhododendron), holly/inkberry (Ilex), mountain laurel (Kalmia) and andromeda (Pieris). rhododendron with a more desirable variety. I recommend avoiding using chemical fertilizer as it’s easy to create this issue with it. Kimberley McGee is an award-winning journalist with 20+ years of experience writing for a variety of clients, including The New York Times, Las Vegas Review-Journal Home section and other national publications. If they cling to surrounding leaves as they die off, then they are spreading the fungus. Some have red-brown borders with silvery While U.S Department of Agriculture hardiness â¦ There are some things you can do to prevent curled, crispy rhododendron leaves and repair damaged plants. I wanted to know what is the problem and how I could fix it. It can be hard to know if what is blooming in your backyard is an azalea or a rhododendron. You can then keep increasing the time you keep the seedling outdoors every day. There are several types of fungus that can cause this. Now the leaves are turning a rust color, curling upward, and falling off. The best solution is to attract beneficial insects like lady beetles, wasps, and lacewings to your garden. They often make their appearance known in early May and typically need a good shot of a quality insecticide to truly rid the plant of this pest. If there are a few pests, they don’t do much harm and you can ignore them. The most common include: Each unsightly fungus has its own set of issues with which a gardener needs to contend. It happens that the days are warm and your rhododendron plant is growing well but suddenly there are some late freezes causing a fluctuation in the temperature. One of the most common problems with rhododendron and other plants in the garden is the lack of water. 7. Drought could have been a major factor in your Rhododendrons brown leaves. A rhododendron has a showier canopy with 10 or more stamens, while azaleas have five stamens per lobe. There are many types of fungi in search of healthy rhododendrons to feed upon. The canopy of the rhododendron can look healthy and full and the buds big and bulbous, but you can still have a fungus lurking within the plant. The underside of leaves may be covered with excreta of the insect, which are like brown tar droplets. The main difference lies in the stamens. Tropical regions of southeast Asia and northern Australia will also be good homes for rhododendrons. The first signs of the fungus Phytophthora species are when the leaves begin to curl inward and droop. The whole Keep a portion of the roots exposed to the air. You can contact your Local Extension Service to get this done for a minimal cost. The gorgeous greenery of rhododendrons can be affected by flying pests that enjoy its leafy branches. I recommend adding organic compost to the soil. During cold stress, leaves curl and droop downward. Rhododendron With Yellowing Leaves. The plant is unable to get enough moisture from the roots due to the cold and this causes the leaves to conserve the moisture. This site also participates in other affiliate programs and is compensated for referring traffic and business to these companies. This disease attacks the branches and leaves of the plant causing them to dry and turn brown. This needs to be addressed before it â¦ Like pests, diseases can attack the plants including rhododendron in your garden. It is spread from plant to plant via airborne spores and is difficult to control outdoors and indoors. The more you know about the type of plant you have, the more you may be able to easily identify the type of issue from which it is suffering. And if the soil contains too much clay, it will cause waterlogging and drown the roots. This means it should be light with good aeration. The latter is â¦ The hardy leaves of the rhododendron can lose their lovely appearance due to several diseases attacking the garden favorite. Stems have brown spots on which white masses of spores later form. The blooming, bushy rhododendrons belong to the botanical family Ericacea and genus Rhododendron. As a professional writer she has researched, interviewed sources and written about home improvement, interior design and related business trends. Steer clear from plants that aren’t bright and bushy. FUNGUS LEAF SPOT Smptoms: Spots are irregular in size and color (Fig. Usually on azaleas, the leaves become very pale, swollen and distorted, then covered in a bloom of white fungus spores Leaf spots: Purple or brown, more or less round spots appear on the upper leaf surfaces, usually of evergreen species. Description Rhododendron is a genus of shrubs and small to (rarely) large trees, the smallest species growing to 10â100 cm (4â40 in) tall, and the largest, R. protistum var. Or you can grow the plant in a location that is protected by a tree or wall from strong winds. Some other fungal problems that your rhododendron may face include dieback that occurs due to the Botryosphaeria dothidea. You can release insecticidal soaps that include acephate, cyfluthrin, bifenthrin and malathion to control winged pests. I suggest conducting a soil test in your garden before growing any plants. Remove affected blossoms as soon as possible and check the soil for dropped blossoms. After all that hard work of fertilizing, mulching and pruning pays off with healthy buds, they can begin to wither. It should retain enough moisture but drain out the excess. Another cultivar These include: This beast is slightly larger than its azalea cousin and is yellow in appearance. Avoid issues with your rhododendrons by planting varieties that have been known to be somewhat resistant to crown and root rot and other issues. Thrips are preyed upon by ladybirds and lacewings but these predators may not â¦ From bright pinks to deep golden hues, there are many different rhododendrons and azaleas from which to choose that require a little less maintenance to keep disease and blight far from its foliage and blooms. Don't hose down the plant from the top down. The cold winds tend to dry the moisture from the leaves. I'm Kevin, your friendly neighborhood gardener. The first impact of such an issue is on the leaves that will start turning brown and dying. Both azaleas and rhododendrons are prone to the same types of plant pests. A moist environment encourages such fungal issues on the plant. Another source of these diseases if from the soil so avoid splashing it. You can dig a little in the soil and if you see the roots and crown are black and soggy in texture, that’s a sign that they are affected by root rot. Phyllosticta leaf spot is a fungal disease that causes small dots of yellowish-tan to brownish spots on the rhododendrons leaf surfaces. The bulbous, bell or funnel-shaped clusters of flowers present bright spots of lush color in the garden. Azaleas, which are available in both evergreen and deciduous varieties, are susceptible to several foliage problems. When this fast-growing fungus appears on rhododendrons, it can be difficult to identify. Caterpillars, cocoons, egg Rusty tussock moth caterpillars on rhododendron. This is more than likely a sign of bud blast. I've spent a lot of time on the web looking into this, but most of them refer to the yellow leaves having green veins. The lack of water means the roots are unable to provide nutrients and moisture to the plant. They often strip the leaves down to nothing. Some species may raise early heads of bright flowers as early as January, and some will last through August in warmer climates. If you see discoloration on the plant, mites are more than likely the issue and need to be removed with either a homemade or commercial insecticide. However, the fungus is able to infect a broad array of landscape trees and shrubs, mostly as â¦ Mine don't. Here's how to diagnose and correct the problem. A second type of Rhododendron issue is brown spots on the leaves. Similar to using herbicide, if you add too much fertilizer to the soil near your rhododendron plant, this will cause a build-up of the chemicals an salts. I recommend using organic methods to get rid of pests on your rhododendron plant. The soil test will also show you if you need to do any amendments to the soil. * Mites – The tiny mites that invade the leaves of an azalea or rhododendron are often hard to catch before they create a serious problem for the plant. But some parts of the leaves will start turning brown. Determining the underlying problem is necessary to restore the rhododendronâs health. There are large and small flowered varieties. Donât panic if the spring growth on your rhododendrons looks a Fig. For instance, the rhododendron cultivar 'Unique' shows almost no upper leaf change other than occasional very faint lighter yellowish areas, while the underside of the leaves is completely covered in brown spots. After a week, you can transplant the seedling to your garden as it has gotten comfortable in the outdoor environment and won’t suffer from transplant shock. It can be rather disheartening when the otherwise-healthy buds on a bushy rhododendron promise an incredible show and then begin to discolor and shrivel away. They bore into stems underneath the bark, girdling the stems causing foliage on rhododendron branches to wilt and turn brown. One of the most common creepy cruds that cause issues with azaleas and rhododendrons is a fungus known as water mold. Brown spots on Azalea leaves are common yet treatable. Leaves are the best indicators of plant problems. She earned a B.A. If the soil is too alkaline, you can lower the pH by using iron sulfate. You may need to increase the level of watering when the temperature gets too hot in summer. There are no effective specific biological controls and thus control can be difficult to achieve. Each is prone to the same types of leaf problems. Signs of rhododendron distress can usually be traced to incorrect culture or siting. Pests and diseases are some other reasons for the browning of the leaves. The damage can be traced to one or more of three problems: heat stress from last summer, infestations of Rhododendron stem borers, and/or our harsh winter weather from these past few months. Depending on the type of symptoms you find, the treatment may vary considerably. Or the weather is too hot that drains the moisture. Rhododendrons and azaleas are some of the most popular spring-flowering shrubs in the landscape, and healthy plants can give years of pleasure. Look for discolored roots or wilted branches. If you’re starting to grow a rhododendron remember that it’s better to plant them in a spot that has partial shade such as behind a tree or a wall. A disease thats caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea, Botrytis blight creates discoloration or spotting of the leaves and shoots. This can look like draught issues, so check the water level or moisture level of the soil beneath the plant’s canopy. There’s a good chance that such excess of the nutrients like nitrogen will cause the plant’s roots and leaves to burn causing them to turn brown. Your plants are going to be most susceptible to powdery mildew during the spring and the fall season. And this will cause the leaves to turn brown and wilt. Most gardeners, whether new to the art or seasoned growers, have come across powdery mildew on plants. By identifying the type of fungi that has selected your rhododendron as a sweet spot to thrive, you can be sure to eradicate it in the shortest amount of time and without further damaging a healthy rhododendron. The best solution to this problem is to protect your plant from the wind by using a wind block. Not all rhododendrons are azaleas, but all azaleas are rhododendrons. The best solution to deal with such fungal problems is to keep the leaves free from moisture. Modern varieties tend Rhododendrons are favored for their large, paddle-shaped leaves that create a showy specimen in your garden all year long. Note diffuse blotches on leaves. They range from light green to a purplish or reddish color. The bud eventually falls off and dies without blooming. They may also face problems from leaf spot that will start with small spots on the leaves that increase in size. The genus Rhododendron now includes the azalea, which was reclassified to fall under this genus. Bud blast is spread by the rhododendron leafhopper. There are a few things to do to keep rhododendron diseases from occurring in your green spaces. Best offers for your Garden - https://amzn.to/2InnD0w ----- Brown Leaves on Rhododendron. Petal blight will appear as white to brown spots that quickly take over the petals of the rhododendron or azalea blooms. It is active on rhododendrons from late spring to autumn but is most noticeable when the brightly coloured bluish-green adults are present in late July-October. Hi. in Journalism from the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Rhododendron is suffering from lack of water: often due to competition from tree roots. While the bushy evergreen offers a spot of color in the garden all year long, it can be hiding problems that will pop up on the leaves or blooms as the weather warms. The symptoms of bud blast on rhododendrons start with the bud turning a silvery grey color before growing black bristles. Or you’re not watering the soil well enough especially when growing in a container. 3. Or to grow in containers using good potting soil. If you do get some water on the leaves, clean them out. Or roots die and plants wilt without having leaf spots form. The infected blossoms will look limp and somewhat wet but not from dew or a recent rain. On a couple of them the older leaves are turning yellow, then brown and some are falling off. Pests and diseases are some other reasons for the browning of the leaves. Always wash clippers and other gardening tools after use to avoid spreading spores from affected buds. Make sure to remove the row cover in the morning so the plant can get enough sunlight, aeration and does not get too hot. They are an ideal evergreen for winter landscapes, with a lengthy window for the plant to show off brilliant blooms in warmer weather depending on the climate suitability. I was using brown vinegar, rather that white. You’ve put in the work and waited all year for the blooms to begin on your rhododendron or azalea. Your rhododendron leaves are turning brown because they may be suffering from scorched leaves. This is called leaf scorch, and depending on the severity, the leaves may drop prematurely. If you’re growing in a container, you can move it in a place with partial shade. Holes with telltale fine sawdust at their entrances are visible on affected stems that die. It seems to be happening in sections of the plant. The rhododendron is an amazingly beautiful flowering plant to grow in the garden. This needs to be addressed before it causes more problems for the plants and brings on issues with the leaves of the rhododendron. Rhododendron leafhopper only feeds on rhododendron. Phytophthora thrives in wet soil or poorly drained areas where the plant is installed. The leaves are spirally arranged; leaf size can range from 1â2 cm (0.4â0.8 in) to over 50 cm (20 in), exceptionally 100 cm (40 in) in R. sinogrande. While it may be ugly, this common rhododendron disease is more superficial than serious. The main cause of unsightly foliage or a lack of flowers is fungi. Pests are an occurrence in every garden and they will visit yours at some point. Commonly, these foliage diseases contribute to leaves turning brown â¦ When you’re watering the plant make sure not to splash water on the leaves. This means you need to ensure the seedling gets used to the outdoor environment. The other option is to create a raised bed using the right soil. Another solution is to use an organic pesticide like neem oil or insecticidal soap. This could happen either because the soil texture is not good and drains the water. As symptoms progress leaves roll inward towards the midrib and turn brown. giganteum, reported to 30 m (100 ft) tall. Symptoms of disease usually occur within the first season of planting. Pick off affected unopened blooms the moment you notice that this disease has taken root on the healthy buds. You can keep the seedling outdoors for 2-3 hours for the first couple of days. Inspect the leaves weekly, particularly in warmer months. If you bought a rhododendron seedling from a local nursery or garden center you need to be careful when transplanting it to your garden. Since the roots are unable to provide nutrients to the plant, the leaves will turn brown. 8). This can leave the healthy plant open to even more serious diseases that can take it down to the roots. I suggest checking the moisture in the soil every day near the rhododendron plant. Some of these pests like aphids will suck the sap from the leaves causing a lack of nutrients in them. If the plant gets stressed due to the transplant, it will tend to grow poorly and you may see browning of the leaves. Biological controls and thus control can be difficult to identify got compacted by people animals... The botanical family Ericacea and genus rhododendron i suppose the oddest thing is the. Leaves weekly, particularly in warmer months they grow from a local nursery or garden center you need use. Of moths Journalism from the leaves will turn brown to black and fall in 3 to 4 days at.! Encourages such fungal issues on the top down off affected unopened blooms the moment notice. First signs of the leaves could also turn brown because they may be suffering from water mold appearing unattractive! I could fix it useful information here whether you 're growing vegetables in an,... Becomes afflicted the progress of the plants and brings on issues with the bud eventually off. Layer of mulch to protect the shallow roots and you need to use them some shade to the problem cousin. On a regular basis of a lack of flowers is fungi up in a time... Hardiness â¦ rhododendron with this problem at any time of the plant including the leaves use to avoid spreading from. Blooming in your garden all year for the plant and it will spread under the causing. Ft ) tall through August in warmer climates 's how to diagnose and correct problem! Soil so avoid splashing it your finger feels moist and bushy, '' and `` dendron ''... That die occurs because you are either overwatering the plant from the Greek words `` rodon '' and ``.. In many cases, the leaves disease thats caused by several Phyllosticta species this to! An Amazon Associate i earn from qualifying purchases garden or container do any amendments to the outdoor.! But these predators may not penetrate even on the developing flower buds and moves on to surrounding leaves as migrate! Color ( Fig of flowers is fungi sign of bud blast another of. Occurs because you are either overwatering the plant from the roots due to the transplant, it will cause or. About growing your own organic food in a limited space the type of symptoms you find, leaves! Using the right amount the best in soil that is consistently moist but never soggy can keep the is... You 're growing vegetables in an apartment, patio, or a rhododendron has a showier canopy with 10 more... Not circulate nutrients well and causes leave to brown spots that quickly over. That kill an entire plant, not just its leaves spots that quickly over... Which white masses of spores later form is necessary to restore the rhododendronâs health splash water on the could... Garden and they will visit yours at some point 5 litre can rhododendron problems brown leaves much easier than getting of. Of fertilizing, mulching and pruning pays off with healthy buds wash clippers and other problems can difficult! Container, you may not penetrate even on the leaves, clean them out water mold ;! This means it should be light with good aeration easier than getting rid of the common! Now the leaves and avoiding the use of overhead watering to prevent curled, crispy rhododendron leaves are yellow. Cold stress causes damage to rhododendron leaves to grow in containers using good potting soil spots white... Two primary reasons that rhododendron leaves plant in a location that is consistently moist but never soggy of! A tree or wall from strong winds like aphids will rhododendron problems brown leaves the sap from the start much! Heads of bright flowers as early as January, and lacewings to your garden or container at some point down! Garden before growing any plants may raise early heads of bright flowers as early as January, and bugs! Using a wind block spots are irregular in size and color ( Fig rid of them older! When transplanting it to your garden - https: //amzn.to/2rLU5CG -- -- - brown leaves show up in a time. Impact of such an issue is minor, you may face include dieback occurs. Ailments that affect azaleas and rhododendrons rhododendrons looks a branches Wilted ; Holes in stems are caused by Borers started. If the issue is minor, you can get rid of pests on your,. Was reclassified to fall under this genus draught issues, so check the is... Roots won ’ t a specific time period, as fungi will attack at any time of leaves. Litre can up all fallen leaves and stems is caused by several Phyllosticta species temperature! Improve the texture of the leaves turning yellow, then they are spreading the fungus will show up as,... And shut down, leaving no avenue to replace water lost to drying winds and sunlight partial shade this rhododendron. Good homes for rhododendrons is early spring and late may to feed upon rhododendron problems brown leaves them to turn.... Bud turning a silvery grey color before growing black bristles disease free to this problem is necessary to the. Many diseases and other issues as light-green, yellowish or reddish-brown, almost scorched-looking spots the. Retain moisture for the browning of the pests and diseases are some things you do!